KPV (ɑ-melanocyte-stimulating hormone)

Peptide Sequence: Lys-Pro-Val
Molecular weight: 342.43 g/mol
Molecular Formula: C16H30N4O4

KPV is a tripeptide (Lys-Pro-Val) based on the α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) molecule. KPV possesses anti-inflammatory properties, although its mechanisms are still largely unmapped. α-MSH is an endogenous tridecapeptide cleavage product of proopiomelanocortin that has protective and anti-inflammatory effects. The anti-inflammatory activity of α-MSH is reported to be facilitated by three N-terminal amino acids, lysine-proline-valine, known as KPV.

Both α -MSH and KPV reduce cytokine release and leukocyte migration in the peritoneal cavity in a model of crystal-induced peritonitis. In a model of IL-1-induced cutaneous inflammation, administration of α -MSH, as well as KPV, ameliorated the inflammatory symptoms. In studies, KPV peptide was reported to exert a more potent anti-inflammatory effect than α-MSH itself. A study also reported that KPV can attenuate the inflammatory responses of colonic epithelial and immune cells and reduce the incidence of colitis in vivo upon oral administration. In glial cells KPV led to markedly decreased expression of TNF- α mRNA and reduced release of NO after stimulation with beta-amyloid or interferon-gamma.

It is important to note that the anti-inflammatory effects of KPV appear to be mediated through somewhat different mechanisms than those of α -MSH. Whereas α -MSH binds to specific melanocortin receptors, KPV does not. It seems KPV exerts its anti-inflammatory function inside cells, where it inactivates inflammatory pathways. Evidence of this comes from mouse studies in which blocking MC3/4 receptors, which mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of α -MSH has no impact on the anti-inflammatory effects of KPV. Specifically, blocking these receptors does not block the leukocyte migration effects induced by KPV.

The ability of KPV to be administered by various methods is also appealing over alpha-MSH, which is only an injection. KPV can be used orally, transdermally, or by injection without side effects. (Description by IPS- International Peptide Society)

❖ Anti-inflammatory, metaflammation
❖ Immune modulation
❖ Gastrointestinal repair- IBS, ulcerative colitis, intestinal damage, colon cancer
❖ Wound healing
❖ Injury healing
❖ Skin appearance (repairs skin barrier proteins)

❖ KPV 500 mcg capsules: Take one capsule PO BID
❖ KPV (2 mg/g) + D3 (1,000 iu/g) topical cream 30 mL topi-click

Side Effects:
❖ KPV peptide administered orally is reported safe and efficacious in recommended dosages.
❖ KPV is not reported to cause skin pigmentation, unlike alpha-MSH.
❖ No notable side effects